M-13225: (Image: 12 x 15'') “PERU” Amsterdam: Arnoldus Montanus, 1671. Engraved map with later hand-coloring.
This highly detailed map is one of the most decorative early maps of Peru - then the richest part of the Spanish Empire in the New World. It depicts present-day Peru, Ecuador and part of Bolivia (including Potosi, La Paz and Cochabamba) and northwestern Chile.
Based on Blaeu and Jansson's maps, this map has two important differences which distinguish it cartographically: 1) The draftsman neglected to rotate the compass rose to the left to indicate the direction north, and 2) the important historical city of Cusco, capital of the Incan Empire, is omitted from the map. Topographical features are noted and major towns, waterways and mountains are identified.
The elaborate title cartouche depicts natives in ceremonial costumes with weaponry and indigenous animals such as a llama, armadillo, snake and some sort of lizard. The distance scale is ornamented with mermaids and flags. Ships, a sea battle and a sea monster embellish the sea.